common anccestor but 공통 조상의 모든 자손을 포함하지는 않는 분류
In taxonomy, a grouping is paraphyletic if it consists of the grouping's last common ancestor and most of its descendants, but excludes a few monophyletic subgroups. The grouping is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. In contrast, a monophyletic grouping includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants. The terms are commonly used in phylogenetics and in the tree model of historical linguistics. Paraphyletic groups are identified by a combination of synapomorphies and symplesiomorphies. If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic.